OpenSSH to OpenSSL

OpenSSH private keys are directly understable by OpenSSL:

openssl rsa -in ~/.ssh/id_rsa -text
openssl dsa -in ~/.ssh/id_dsa -text

So, you can directly create certification request:

openssl req -new -key ~/.ssh/id_dsa -out mykey.csr

Notice I have not found how to manipulate ssh public key with OpenSSL

OpenSSL to OpenSSH

Private keys format is same between OpenSSL and OpenSSH, but not public key format. Nevertheless, you extract public key from private key file:

ssh-keygen -y -f id_rsa >

GnuPG to OpenSSL

Gpgsm utility can exports keys and certificate in PCSC12:

gpgsm -o  secret-gpg-key.p12 --export-secret-key-p12 0xXXXXXXXX

You have to extract Key and Certificates separatly:

openssl pkcs12 -in secret-gpg-key.p12 -nocerts -out gpg-key.pem
openssl pkcs12 -in secret-gpg-key.p12 -nokeys -out gpg-certs.pem

You can now use it in OpenSSL.

You can also do similar thing with GnuPG public keys. There will be only certificates output.

OpenSSL to GnuPG

Invert process:

openssl pkcs12 -export -in gpg-certs.pem -inkey gpg-key.pem -out gpg-key.p12
gpgsm --import gpg-key.p12

GnuPG to OpenSSH

Now, chain processes:

 gpgsm -o  secret-gpg-key.p12 --export-secret-key-p12 0xXXXXXXXX
 openssl pkcs12 -in secret-gpg-key.p12 -nocerts -out gpg-key.pem

We need to protect key, else ssh refuse it.

 chmod 600 gpg-key.pem
 cp gpg-key.pem ~/.ssh/id_rsa
 ssh-keygen -y -f gpg-key.pem > ~/.ssh/

OpenSSH to GnuPG

First we need to create a certificate (self-signed) for our ssh key:

openssl req -new -x509 -key ~/.ssh/id_rsa -out ssh-cert.pem

We can now import it in GnuPG

openssl pkcs12 -export -in ssh-certs.pem -inkey ~/.ssh/id_rsa -out ssh-key.p12
gpgsm --import ssh-key.p12

Notice you cannot import/export DSA ssh keys to/from GnuPG